Why Reporters Without Borders is not endorsing the Global Principles on Freedom of Expression and Privacy for ICT companies operating in Internet-restricting countries

first_img– 3 – Companies could still enter into business relationships (joint ventures, mergers) with local partners that do not follow the principles, then bypass the restrictions imposed by the principles and blame the local entity (such as Alibaba for Yahoo!) in case of violations of freedom of expression or collaboration for the arrest of dissidents. October 28, 2008 – Updated on January 25, 2016 Why Reporters Without Borders is not endorsing the Global Principles on Freedom of Expression and Privacy for ICT companies operating in Internet-restricting countries News Reporters Without Borders is concerned by several loopholes and weak language on the central points that may threaten the very implementation of these principles and justify the status quo. It also regrets the fact that some sensitive issues related to the monitoring process remain yet to be addressed. Here is an overview of the organization’s main concerns: – 2 – The extent to which companies are expected to challenge governments’ requests remains unclear. Requests in writing are sought but not mandatory. – 1 – Local law remains the reference even if it violates international human rights standards. Thus, participating companies will comply with repressive regimes who have at their disposal an arsenal of legal provisions aimed at silencing dissidents. The international press freedom organization recognizes the important work done by the participants of this multi-stakeholder initiative that gathers companies, academics, investors and NGOs. Nevertheless, after participating in the discussions for almost two years, Reporters Without Borders decided last September to withdraw from the discussions and to not endorse those principles. “Under these principles, another Shi Tao case is still possible” stated Reporters Without Borders referring to the jailed Chinese reporter whose verdict revealed that Yahoo ! gave some personal identifying information to the Chinese authorities. “We believe that, as of today, the best option to prevent IT companies from being forced to collaborate with the Web-censors in repressive countries remains to provide a legal framework for companies willing to resist governments’ requests that violate the international free speech standards, as the Global Online Freedom Act, introduced by Representative Chris Smith does for American IT firms”, commented the press freedom organization. “We will follow the implementation of the principles and are willing to continue to take part in this interesting collaboration and exchange of ideas, but in a different capacity. We stand ready to be, as a third party, of any assistance to the Initiative should our expertise or input be needed. We have been monitoring the free flow of online information for years and we will continue to denounce the obstacle to online free speech”, added Reporters Without Borders. The organization believes these principles are one step in the right direction, but they do not go far enough to provide a sufficient protection to freedom of expression on the Internet. – 5 – The assessors’ independence and impartiality as well as the extent to which companies’ will provide them with the necessary information to monitor developments remains uncertain.center_img – 4 – Disclosure to users and transparency regarding the type of personal information retained by ITC companies’ remains unsatisfactory.. Users have no assurances that companies will try to minimize data collection, nor do they know how long this data will be saved. The bill would ban companies from locating the servers containing this data and from providing information that identifies users, except in cases in which the law is being legitimately applied, to be decided by the US justice department. The US companies would also have to act transparently and transmit information about the type of censorship they apply to an interagency-staffed Office of Global Internet Freedom, which would have the job of defining US government policy for the promotion of the free flow of online information and monitoring violations. A feasibility study of technologies and equipment’s export control would also be made. The bill also promotes the idea of a voluntary code of conduct to be established for companies working in countries with repressive regimes. GOFA was approved by the House’s Foreign Affairs Committee in October 2007 and is now awaiting a floor vote. In July 2008, MEP Jules Maaten, initiated the European Global Online Freedom Act (EU GOFA), which was drafted out of the American GOFA, and whose goal is to protect European ICT firms doing business with répressive regimes. Organisation More on the GOFARead the EU-GOFA Reporters Without Borders has supported the Global Online Freedom Act (GOFA) since its birth. Introduced by Representative Chris Smith (R-NJ) in February 2006, it would protect American IT companies from being forced to collaborate with repressive regimes. The Act would prevent repressive governments – those that punish dissidents and human rights activists who exercise their right to online free expression – from accessing personal data through US companies. RSF_en Reporters Without Borders welcomes the adoption of the Global Principles on Freedom of Expression and Privacy as a first step towards ICT companies’ recognition of the importance of free expression while operating in Internet-restricting countries. The international press freedom organization recognizes the important work done by the participants of this multi-stakeholder initiative that gathers companies, academics, investors and NGOs. Nevertheless, after participating in the discussions for almost two years, Reporters Without Borders decided last September to withdraw from the discussions and to not endorse those principles. Help by sharing this informationlast_img read more

Standard Bank named best in Africa

first_img16 July 2013South Africa’s Standard Bank was named the best investment bank in Africa by international finance magazine Euromoney at the magazine’s annual Awards for Excellence ceremony in London last week.It was also named best equity house and best risk manager on the continent.“Winning these awards is particularly significant as it is an acknowledgement of our commitment to our clients as they grow in and across Africa,” Standard Bank Corporate and Investment Banking CEO David Munro said in a statement.“We have a unique footprint and physical presence across Africa, global connectivity to serve Africa, unique sector expertise and a talented and experienced team, all of which reinforce our position as the leading financial services organisation on the continent.”It was the 23rd edition of the awards, and Euromoney judges had to choose between over 600 banks and brokerage houses by examining key performance indicators, financial ratios and innovations.“Our presence and experience across sub-Saharan Africa, our specialisation in natural resources, and our ability to connect African markets to each other and to China, Brazil, the Middle East and the developed world’s pools of capital, combined with a strong reputation and product expertise, afford Standard Bank a unique competitive position to build long-term and well co-ordinated client relationships,” Munro said.“The bank has benefited from its expansion in Africa, pushing it ahead of the competition,” said Euromoney editor Clive Horwood.“It has a clear advantage in South Africa, where it is the biggest bank by assets. And it already transacts an extraordinary quantity and quality of deals further north too.“In addition, Standard Bank remains perhaps the most prominent international book- runner on local-currency bonds across Africa,” Horwood said.SAinfo reporterlast_img read more

They Say Imperative. I Agree.

first_imgI just received a copy of The New Sales Imperative: B2B Purchasing Has Become Too Complicated, You Need to Make It Easy For Your Customers To Buy, by Nick Toman, Brent Adamson, and Cristina Gomez of CEB.I can’t hide the fact that I take great joy in reading and sharing this article, as it validates my experience, much of what I have published here, as well as many of the major themes of my new book, The Lost Art of Closing. Some portion of the emails I receive continually argue against what CEB’s research shows to be true. This is an article that is worth studying.Let’s start with the fact that “Most B2B sellers think their customers are in the driver’s seat, empowered, armed to the teeth with information. They believe their customers are so clear about their needs that they don’t need to bother to engage with the suppliers until late in the process, when their decision is already “complete.” Let this statement dispel the myth that your buyers don’t need you, as CEB’s research shows. They are “deeply uncertain and stressed.” This is causing complex deals to bog down.The article continues to lay out the case that too much information is causing confusion, paralyzing the client. More people being involved in the deal makes consensus difficult—and in my experience working with some companies, closer to impossible. Too many choices slows the process, as buyers are concerned about risk.The remedy, say the authors: “Make buying easier.” Let us continue.“Sellers are striving to be more responsive than ever—taking the customer’s lead and providing whatever support is requested . . . driving an 18% decrease in purchasing ease.” What’s the remedy? How about a prescriptive approach?The article cites the need to “explain the process” and prescribe the course of action. In my words: Control the process. By controlling the process, you may not control the outcome, but you’ll have better results in helping the buyer with a process that gets them the result they need (Chapter 3 in The Lost Art of Closing). The authors then walk through the steps of prescribing. They start with “identifying whether they (the buyer) have a problem that merits attention,” or in my words in Chapter 4 of The Lost Art of Closing, “a problem worth solving,” the key to compelling real change.If your dream clients could produce the results they needed without you, they’d already be doing so. If your competitor knew how to help them make the real change they need to make, they’d have already done so.In a section on “Identifying Barriers,” one of the ideas covered is whether people who needed to be involved were brought into the process in a timely and effective way. This is about collaboration and consensus, Chapters 7 and 8, respectively, in The Lost Art. I don’t believe this is a recommendation. It is an imperative. The commitment to collaborate and build consensus are every bit as important as the Commitment to Decide to buy. Without gaining these commitments, you make a win unlikely. You are trying to help an organization with a complex challenge change, and you aren’t going to do that if you are single-threaded, working with what you believe to be your power sponsor, when there are really power sponsors).That section of the article also points out the buyer’s early stage challenges of making sense of the information they receive. This is dissonance. The buyer doesn’t understand what they are experiencing, and they struggle to find an answer that helps them decide what they need to do. This is why you need a prescriptive approach. You must teach them what they don’t know. While so many experts spout off about information parity, and how sellers have no ability to create real value, the evidence is in contradiction. Besides, if there is information parity, it’s your fault. Get you some chops!The authors state that the prescriptive approach must be “unbiased and credible,” “reduce indecision and compel action,” and “facilitate a process along a purchase path that the supplier is uniquely able to provide. I call this Proof (information from credible sources), Facts and Figures (data from validated sources), and Views and Values (what we believe the right answer to be and why). I had a free module available on Nurturing your Dream Clients online, but it is now behind a paywall.I am even more prescriptive than the team at CEB suggests with this article. The need to gain the necessary commitments to help clients change is non-negotiable. You have either gained the commitment to do what comes next, or you have not. What the authors describe as “customer verifiers,” I call commitments. If the contacts you are working with don’t believe they have to actually do something, you don’t have a commitment. And you likely aren’t helping them to change.Read the article here. Think deeply about whether or not you are serving your clients by assuming they have everything under control and that they don’t need you to lead (Chapter 18 of The Only Sales Guide You’ll Ever Need).Here is a short video on The Challenger Sale. Get the Free eBook! Learn how to sell without a sales manager. Download my free eBook! You need to make sales. You need help now. We’ve got you covered. This eBook will help you Seize Your Sales Destiny, with or without a manager. Download Nowlast_img read more

Low back pain- acute

first_imgDefinitionLow back pain refers to pain that you feel in your lower back. You may also have back stiffness, decreased movement of the lower back, and difficulty standing straight.Acute back pain can last for a few days to a few weeks.Alternative NamesBackache; Low back pain; Lumbar pain; Pain – back; Acute back pain; Back pain – new; Back pain – short-term; Back strain – newCauses, incidence, and risk factorsMost people will have at least one backache intheir life. Although this pain or discomfort can happen anywhere in your back, the most common area affected is your low back. This is because the low back supports most of your bodys weight.Low back pain is the number two reason that Americans see their health care provider — second only to colds and flu. Many back-related injuries happen at work. There are many things you can do to lower your chances of getting back pain.Youll usually first feel back pain just after you lift a heavy object, move suddenly, sit in one position for a long time, or have an injury or accident.Acute low back pain is most often caused by a sudden injury to the muscles and ligaments supporting the back. The pain may be caused by muscle spasms or a strain or tear in the muscles and ligamentsCauses of sudden low back pain include:Compression fractures to the spine from osteoporosisCancer involving the spineFracture of the spinal cordMuscle spasm (very tense muscles)Ruptured or herniated diskSciaticaSpinal stenosis (narrowing of the spinal canal)Spine curvatures (like scoliosis or kyphosis), which may be inherited and seen in children or teensStrain or tears to the muscles or ligaments supporting the backLow back pain may also be due to:advertisementAn abnormal aortic aneurysm that is leakingArthritis conditions, such as osteoarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritisInfection of the spine (osteomyelitis, diskitis, abscess)Kidney infection or kidney stonesProblems related to pregnancyMedical conditions that affect the female reproductive organs, including endometriosis, ovarian cysts, ovarian cancer, or uterine fibroidsSymptomsYou may feel a variety of symptoms if youve hurt your back. You may have a tingling or burning sensation, a dull achy feeling, or sharp pain. Depending on the cause and severity, you also may have weakness in your legs or feet.Low back pain can vary widely. The pain may be mild, or it can be so severe that you are unable to move.Depending on the cause of your back pain, you may also have pain in your leg, hip, or the bottom of your foot.Signs and testsWhen you first see your health care provider, you will be asked questions about your back pain, including how often it occurs and how severe it is.Your health care provider will try to determine the cause of your back pain and whether it is likely to quickly get better with simple measures such as ice, mild painkillers, physical therapy, and proper exercises. Most of the time, back pain will get better using these approaches.During the physical exam, your health care provider will try to pinpoint the location of the pain and figure out how it affects your movement. See: Back pain – when you see the doctorMost people with back pain improve or recover within 4 – 6 weeks. Therefore, your health care provider will probably not order any tests during the first visit unless you have certain symptoms.Tests that might be ordered include:CT scan of the lower spineMRI of the lower spineX-rayTreatmentTo get better quickly, take the right steps when you first feel pain.Here are some tips for how to handle pain:Stop normal physical activity for the first few days. This will help relieve your symptoms and reduce any swelling in the area of the pain.Apply heat or ice to the painful area. One good method is to use ice for the first 48-72 hours, and then use heat.Take over-the-counter pain relievers such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB) or acetaminophen (Tylenol).While sleeping, try lying in a curled-up, fetal position with a pillow between your legs. If you usually sleep on your back, place a pillow or rolled towel under your knees to relieve pressure.A common misbelief about back pain is that you need to rest and avoid activity for a long time. In fact, bed rest is NOT recommended. If you have no sign of a serious cause for your back pain (such as loss of bowel or bladder control, weakness, weight loss, or fever), then you should stay as active as possible.advertisementYou may want to reduce your activity only for the first couple of days. Then, slowly start your usual activities after that. Do not perform activities that involve heavy lifting or twisting of your back for the first 6 weeks after the pain begins. After 2 – 3 weeks, you should gradually start exercising again.Begin with lightaerobic training. Walking, riding a stationary bicycle, and swimming are great examples.These aerobic activities canimprove blood flow to your back and promote healing. They also strengthen muscles in your stomach and back.Stretching and strengthening exercises are important. However, starting these exercises too soon after an injury can make your pain worse. A physical therapist can help youknow when to begin stretching and strengthening exercises and how to do them.Many people benefit from physical therapy. Your health care provider will determine whether you need to see a physical therapist and can refer you to one in your area. The physical therapist will first use methods to reduce your pain. Then, the therapist will teach you ways to prevent getting back pain again.If your pain lasts longer than one month, your primary care health care provider may send you to see either an orthopedist (bone specialist) or neurologist (nerve specialist).If your pain has not improved after use of medicines, physical therapy, and other treatments, your doctor may recommend an epidural injection.You may also see a:Massage therapistSomeone who performs acupunctureSomeone who does spinal manipulation (a chiropractor, osteopathic doctor, or physical therapist)Sometimes a few visits to these specialists will help back pain.Expectations (prognosis)Many people will feel better within 1 week. After another 4 – 6 weeks, the back pain should be completely gone.Calling your health care providerCall your health care provider right away if you have:Back pain after a severe blow or fallBurning with urination or blood in your urineHistory of cancerLoss of control over urine or stool (incontinence)Pain traveling down your legs below the kneePain that is worse when you lie down or that wakes you up at nightRedness or swelling on the back or spineSevere pain that does not allow you to get comfortableUnexplained fever with back painWeakness or numbness in your buttocks, thigh, leg, or pelvisAlso call if:You have been losing weight unintentionallyYou use steroids or intravenous drugs.You have had back pain before, but this episode is different and feels worse.This episode of back pain has lasted longer than 4 weeks.PreventionExercise is important for preventing back pain. Through exercise you can:Improve your postureStrengthen your back and improve flexibilityLose weightAvoid fallsIt is also very important to learn to lift and bend properly. Follow these tips:If an object is too heavy or awkward, get help.Spread your feet apart to give you a wide base of support.Stand as close to the object you are lifting as possible.Bend at your knees, not at your waist.Tighten your stomach muscles as you lift the object or lower it down.Hold the object as close to your body as you can.Lift using your leg muscles.As you stand up with the object, DO NOT bend forward.DO NOT twist while you are bending for the object, lifting it up, or carrying it.Other measures to prevent back pain include:advertisementAvoid standing for long periods of time. If you must stand for your work, try using a stool. Alternate resting each foot on it.DO NOT wear high heels. Use cushioned soles when walking.When sitting for work, especially if using a computer, make sure that your chair has a straight back with an adjustable seat and back, armrests, and a swivel seat.Use a stool under your feet while sitting so that your knees are higher than your hips.Place a small pillow or rolled towel behind your lower back while sitting or driving for long periods of time.If you drive long distance, stop and walk around every hour. Bring your seat as far forward as possible to avoid bending. Dont lift heavy objects just after a ride.Quit smoking.Lose weight.Do exercises to strengthen your abdominal muscles on a regular basis. This will strengthen your core to decrease the risk of further injuries.Learn to relax. Try methods such as yoga, tai chi, or massage.ReferencesUS Preventative Services Task Force. Primary Care Interventions to Prevent Low Back Pain: Brief Evidence Update. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; February 2004.Chou R, Qaseem A, Snow V, Casey D, Cross JT Jr, Shekelle P, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of low back pain: a joint clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians and the American Pain Society. Ann Intern Med. 2007;147:478-491.Chou R, Fu R, Carrino JA, Deyo RA. Imaging strategies for low-back pain: systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2009;373:463-472.Chou R, Atlas SJ, Stanos SP, Rosenquist RW. Nonsurgical interventional therapies for low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society clinical practice guideline. Spine. 2009;34(10):1078-1093.Chou R, Loeser JD, Owens DK, Rosenquist RW, et al; American Pain Society Low Back Pain Guideline Panel. Interventional therapies, surgery, and interdisciplinary rehabilitation for low back pain: an evidence-based clinical practice guideline from the American Pain Society. Spine. 2009;34:10660-1077.Jani P, Battaglia M, Naesch E, Hammerle G, Eser P, et al. A randomised controlled trial of spinal manipulative therapy in acute low back pain. Ann Rheum Dis. 2009;68:1420-1427.Dahm KT, Brurberg KG, Jamtvedt G, Hagen KB. Advice to rest in bed versus advice to stay active for acute low-back pain and sciatica. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD007612. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007612.pub2.Walker BF, French SD, Grant W, Green S. Combined chiropractic interventions for low-back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;4:CD005427. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005427.pub2.Schaafsma F, Schonstein E, Whelan KM, Ulvestad E, Kenny DT, Verbeek JH. Physical conditioning programs for improving work outcomes in workers with back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;1:CD001822. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001822.pub2.Anema JR, Steenstra IA, Bongers PM, de Vet HC, Knol DL, Loisel P, van Mechelen W. Multidisciplinary rehabilitation for subacute low back pain: graded activity or workplace intervention or both? A randomized controlled trial. Spine. 2007;32:291-298.Review Date:6/29/2012Reviewed By:Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Medical Director and Director of Didactic Curriculum, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington; and C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.last_img read more

Chess: teenage stars come out to shine in Moscow Aeroflot Open

first_imgShare on LinkedIn Share on Pinterest Support The Guardian Reuse this content Moscow Aeroflot, one of the world’s great opens, reaches its critical rounds this weekend (noon GMT start, free and live online viewing) at the Cosmos Hotel. Aeroflot vies with Tradewise Gibraltar for premier status and the differences between them are interesting.Gibraltar boasts GMs from the world top 10, almost all the best women players, a wide mix of nationalities and a fine offboard social programme. Aeroflot targets the GMs from the top 50-200 with ambitions to reach the elite and has an impressive array of junior talent, though its geographical mix is narrower. news Since you’re here… Topics Aeroflot’s players come from the old Soviet Union and from the new powers India and China, with only a sprinkling of entrants from the West. There are no British players in any of the three sections and just a handful of Americans led by Gata Kamsky, who emigrated as a child from the old USSR. Gibraltar’s first prize is £25,000 (€28,400), Aeroflot’s is €18,000 plus a place in the next Dortmund elite event.Andrey Episenko, 15, has qualified as one of the youngest GMs, shone at the world rapid/blitz and drew his first two games at Aeroflot against top seeds. The blitz specialist Vladislav Artemiev, 19, began with two wins.There was less favourable news for Rameshbabu Praggnanandhaa, who became the youngest ever IM at 10 and has since had his eyes on Sergey Karjakin’s record as the youngest ever GM at 12 years 7 months.The Indian prodigy still has only one of the three required GM results, time will run out for him on 10 March, and he lost in round two to Russia’s Igor Lysyj.North-East England is enjoying a sudden chess boom. Its team in the UK 4NCL tops its section of Division Two after six rounds and will qualify for the promotion pool where it will have good chances to qualify for the top division in 2018-19 along with the powerful Manx Liberty squad.Last week Heaton, Newcastle, staged the Northumbrian Masters, the first international tournament in the region for many years. Backing from Capital Bridging Finance Solutions meant a prize fund of over £3,000 which attracted 18 GMs and IMs. There was almost a dramatic English success as Ravi Haria, 18, reached a won ending in the final round which could have earned the Elstree teenager outright second place. He only drew, so shared third with the winner of this week’s game and two others.Danny Gormally’s victory looks smooth, but it was aided by Black’s passive strategy. White’s gambit 5 Nc3 (Bd2 is normal) could have been dubious if Black had countered actively by 7…Bd7! or c5 at moves 8-9. As played, White regained the pawn with a big space advantage, and concluded forcefully with the star move 23 Nd7!Danny Gormally v Iain Gourlay, Northumbrian Masters 20181 d4 d5 2 Nf3 Nf6 3 c4 e6 4 g3 Bb4+ 5 Nc3?! dxc 4 6 a3 Bxc3+ 7 bxc3 O-O 8 Bg2 Nd5 9 Qc2 f6 10 Nd2 Nb6 11 O-O Nc6 12 a4 a5 13 e4 Bd7 14 Ba3 Ne7 15 Bc5 Bc6 16 Rfb1 Rc8 17 Bxb6 cxb6 18 Nxc4 Be8 19 Nxb6 Rc6 20 Qb3 Bf7 21 d5 exd5 22 exd5 Nc8 23 Nd7! Qxd7 24 dxc6 bxc6 25 Qb7 1-03555 1 f7+ wins. If Kf8 2 Rh8+ Ke7 3 Re8+ Kd6 4 f8Q+ and Black will soon be mated. If Kg7 2 Rh7+! Kxg6 (if Kf6 3 f8Q+) 3 f8N+! Kf6 4 Rxd7 ends it. Share on Twitter Chess Share on Messenger Read more Leonard Barden on chess Chess: Magnus Carlsen beats Hikaru Nakamura in Fischer Random match Share on Facebook Share on WhatsApp … we have a small favour to ask. More people, like you, are reading and supporting the Guardian’s independent, investigative journalism than ever before. And unlike many news organisations, we made the choice to keep our reporting open for all, regardless of where they live or what they can afford to pay.The Guardian will engage with the most critical issues of our time – from the escalating climate catastrophe to widespread inequality to the influence of big tech on our lives. At a time when factual information is a necessity, we believe that each of us, around the world, deserves access to accurate reporting with integrity at its heart.Our editorial independence means we set our own agenda and voice our own opinions. Guardian journalism is free from commercial and political bias and not influenced by billionaire owners or shareholders. This means we can give a voice to those less heard, explore where others turn away, and rigorously challenge those in power.We hope you will consider supporting us today. We need your support to keep delivering quality journalism that’s open and independent. Every reader contribution, however big or small, is so valuable. Support The Guardian from as little as $1 – and it only takes a minute. Thank you. Share via Emaillast_img read more