Study examines how strategies can foster or destroy cooperation Rethinking the roots of altruism Choosing partners or rivals Where cooperation thrives All it took to rewrite the rules of understanding the evolution of cooperation was a series of chance encounters among Martin Nowak, Krishnendu Chatterjee, and Christian Hilbe.During his first visit to Harvard in 2008, Chatterjee, a computer-science professor at IST Austria, mentioned stochastic games — games that can change based on players’ actions — and the idea sent Nowak down a years-long path to merge the concept with evolutionary dynamics.“People who study evolution of cooperation do not use stochastic games,” said Nowak, who developed the new framework in collaboration with Chatterjee, Hilbe, a postdoctoral fellow in Chatterjee’s group at IST, and Stepan Simsa of Charles University in Prague. “Instead, in a sequence of repeated encounters, it is assumed that the same game with the same payoff matrix is played again and again. In a stochastic game, the game itself can change probabilistically depending on the players’ actions.”That new approach, described in a July 4 paper published in the journal Nature, describes a system that can model the evolution of cooperation based on repeated stochastic games. In the simplest form, only two games are played, one for a larger reward, the other for a smaller one. In each round, players must choose whether to cooperate or to defect.Both games work the same way: If both players cooperate, both receive a reward. If one defects while the other cooperates, the defector collects a larger reward while the other player gets nothing. If both defect, both receive a reward, though it’s smaller than the reward for cooperation. Under normal conditions cooperation rarely emerges, because the most logical decision is for players to defect in an effort to maximize their reward. The innovation finds that whether players cooperate affects which game they subsequently play. The players begin with the higher-value game. As long as both players cooperate, they continue to play that game, but if either defects they move to the lower-value game. Once they again cooperate, they might return to the higher-value game.“Amazingly, even if both games are set up so that cooperation does not evolve, when we put them together, we get cooperation,” Nowak said. “It’s almost like a paradox.” The key to making the system work, Nowak said, is the difference in value between the two games.“If we defect, we are destroying something, but if we cooperate we are building something,” he said. “So when we cooperate, we play subsequently for something that is more valuable, and if we defect, we play subsequently for something that is less valuable.“That’s what makes the new approach exciting. The idea is so simple, and yet it changes everything. If you defect in the first game, you lose out twice, because your opponent will retaliate and you have to play a less-valuable game.”The stochastic framework can also be applied to multiplayer games, including public-goods games, where players can resolve what is known as the “tragedy of the commons.”“Humans are exploiting the environment in a public-goods game,” Nowak said. “In the old framework, we decide to cooperate or defect, but the next day we play the same game again, and the state of the environment is always the same. But in our new theory, if we exploit the environment badly, in the next round it may be deteriorated, and then we face a less-valuable public good.”If the environment deteriorates sharply in response to defection, then there is a strong incentive to maintain cooperation: the knowledge of being at a breaking point. If the environment deteriorates slowly or not at all, then achieving cooperation is, paradoxically, more difficult.The concept can also be used by public officials and policymakers to design programs that empower cooperation. If players cooperate, they have the chance to move to more valuable games.“This has interesting implications for some of the major problems humans are facing, such as climate change, environmental destruction, and migration,” Nowak said. “If people understand that defection today means that we will play a game with a lower payoff tomorrow, then cooperation becomes a winning strategy.”The research was supported with funding from the European Research Council, Graph Games, the Austrian Science Fund, an FWF NFN grant, the Office of Naval Research, and the John Templeton Foundation. Related Research finds major flaws in standard approach In new research on social networks, ‘a mathematical argument for stable families or for stable friendships’
Advertisement Bruno Fernandes and Paul Pogba Man Utd prediction made by Arsenal legend Emmanuel Petit Metro Sport ReporterSaturday 28 Mar 2020 1:12 pmShare this article via facebookShare this article via twitterShare this article via messengerShare this with Share this article via emailShare this article via flipboardCopy link7.9kShares Bruno Fernandes joined Manchester United in January (Picture: Getty)Bruno Fernandes and Paul Pogba have been backed to form a successful midfield partnership at Manchester United by Arsenal legend Emmanuel Petit.Portuguese midfielder Fernandes joined the Red Devils in January from Sporting and has made an instant impact at Old Trafford.Petit rates Fernandes as the ‘best buy’ from a Premier League club during the winter window and says he can form a formidable partnership with Pogba.Pogba has not featured for Manchester United since Boxing Day due to an ankle injury and there have been suggestions he could leave Old Trafford following Fernandes’ arrival.ADVERTISEMENTRead the latest updates: Coronavirus news liveAdvertisementAdvertisementBut Petit is excited to see the French World Cup-winner play alongside Fernandes, telling Mirror Sport: ‘Fernandes has made a huge impact.‘In the space of two months he is the best buy in the winter market. He has made such a big impact. It’s like he’s been at the club for six years.‘He’s changed the mentality inside the dressing room. It’s hard for a player to come in mid-season and do that. Comment Paul Pogba can play alongside Fernandes, according to Emmanuel Petit (Picture: Getty)‘Paul Pogba was meant to be doing this at Manchester United. It’s what he should have done in terms of leadership on the pitch.‘But I’m looking forward to seeing them together on the pitch, I want to see if that can work, and I’m pretty sure it can work.’Before the Premier League season was suspended due to the coronavirus outbreak, Manchester United had climbed to fifth in the English top-flight.More: FootballRio Ferdinand urges Ole Gunnar Solskjaer to drop Manchester United starChelsea defender Fikayo Tomori reveals why he made U-turn over transfer deadline day moveMikel Arteta rates Thomas Partey’s chances of making his Arsenal debut vs Man CityMORE: The three things Manchester United need to offer Jadon Sancho to secure summer moveMORE: Manchester United raise contract offer to Chelsea target Angel Gomes Advertisement
Earlier this month, 10 of the 12 funds invested a combined £675m in the pool’s first infrastructure offering. Border to Coast said it aimed to invest the assets “over the next nine months” in a diversified global strategy. Due diligence on potential investments had already started, the pool said. Daniel Booth, Border to Coast’s CIO, speaks at an industry event earlier this yearThe 12 “partner” LGPS funds were expected to make “similar” commitments to the private equity and infrastructure programmes “on an annual basis over the medium term”, the pool said.The private markets programme aimed to “enhance risk-adjusted, net-of-fees returns… through economies of scale, increased resources for due diligence, and access to a wider range of investments”, Border to Coast stated.The pool’s chief investment officer Daniel Booth said: “I am grateful to Mark Lyon, our head of alternatives, and the wider Border to Coast team for their hard work and dedication in setting up our alternative investment platform in such a tight timeframe, which will allow us to begin investing into the exciting range of opportunities we are currently reviewing.”LGPS funds in the Border to Coast pool comprise the pension schemes for Cumbria, Durham, East Riding, Bedfordshire, Lincolnshire, North Yorkshire, Northumberland, South Yorkshire, Surrey, Teesside, Tyne and Wear, and Warwickshire. Between them they have more than £43bn in assets. Border to Coast Pensions Partnership, one of the UK’s eight asset pools for Local Government Pension Scheme (LGPS) funds, has launched two private markets vehicles with more than £1.1bn (€1.2bn) in assets between them.The pool aims to invest £10bn in private markets “over the long term”, it said in a statement released today.Border to Coast launched its first private equity offering in May, the statement said, attracting £500m from eight of the 12 funds that set up the pool last year.“These commitments will be invested over the next year via high quality managers as part of a programme to provide a diversified global private equity portfolio over the long-term across buyout, special situations, growth and venture strategies,” Border to Coast said.
Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) is considering whether to provide financing for Novatek’s second LNG export project in the Russian Arctic.JBIC has already provided 200 million euros ($238 million) for Novatek’s giant Yamal LNG project, that is expected to be launched by the end of this year.JBIC Chief Executive Tadashi Maeda was quoted by Reuters on Thursday as saying that participation of Japanese companies – direct or in the form of LNG buyers from the project – would be a condition.“Its conditional of Japanese companies’ participation in the project,” Maeda said.He added that the bank would not provide financing if there were no Japanese companies involved, according to the report.Besides its $27 billion Yamal LNG project, Novatek is also planning to build its second LNG export project to be located on the Gydan peninsula.Novatek has already started the design works on the Arctic LNG-2 project – expected to have the same output as Yamal or about 16.5 million tonnes per year.Production at the company’s second LNG export project is due to start in 2022-2023. LNG World News Staff
HealthLifestyle Baby gender blood tests ‘accurate’ by: – August 10, 2011 Tweet Sharing is caring! Share Share By Michelle RobertsHealth reporter, BBC NewsMany couples do not want to be told the sex of their baby before the birthParents-to-be wanting to find out their baby’s gender can be assured that a blood test on the mother gives an accurate result, say scientists.The tests, which look for foetal DNA in the mother’s blood, are sold privately in many countries, including the UK.Yet few studies, until now, have scrutinised how well they perform.US experts examined over 6,000 test results and found it was reliable 98% of the time – providing it was used after the seventh week of pregnancy.Anything earlier than this made the test unreliable, the Journal of the American Medical Association reports.And urine-based tests appeared to be unreliable altogether.A routine ultrasound scan of the baby can only give a gender prediction at about 12 weeks. For couples who need to know the sex of their child for medical reasons – to see if their baby might be affected by a genetic disorder that affects only boys, for example – this wait can seem too long.Dr Stephanie Devaney, who led the work at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, said the blood tests could be useful in clinical settings to aid early detection.Some hospitals, like Great Ormond Street, already use them to help detect male babies that could have haemophilia.But critics of the tests argue that the blood tests could also be used for family balancing – where couples will only continue with the pregnancy if, for example, the baby is a girl because they already have three boys.The review, which looked at 57 studies representing 6,541 pregnancies, found the blood tests gave a genuine result (sensitivity) 95% of the time and that this result was accurate or correct for gender (specificity) 98.6% of the time.For example, if the test was used by 100 couples, only a few of them would be left still not knowing with certainty what the sex of their unborn child was.Professor Richard Fleming, of the Glasgow Centre for Reproductive Medicine, said it was important to have confirmation that the tests are valid.“If you can test from seven weeks of pregnancy then that means knowing the sex a month before a scan could tell you, which is helpful.”He said it could help doctors check for sex-linked genetic conditions earlier. But he said the technology was likely to be used for social reasons.Dr Gillian Lockwood, medical director of Midland Fertility Services, agreed, saying: “In the UK we would not normally approve of someone who decided to terminate because it was a ‘blue’ pregnancy rather than a ‘pink’ one.“Sex selection for social reasons is illegal in the UK. But there’s the danger that this is part of a slippery slope.”BBC News Share 22 Views no discussions
70 Views no discussions Share Sharing is caring! Share Food & DiningLifestyle JELL-O Chocolate Cherry Bombs by: – November 16, 2011 Tweet Share JELL-O Chocolate Cherry BombsIngredients:1/3 cup boiling water1pkg (3 oz.) JELL-O Cherry Flavor Gelatin1 can (5 oz.) evaporated milk2 squares BAKER’S Semi-Sweet Chocolate, coarsely chopped14 maraschino cherries with stems, drained Method: Add boiling water to gelatin in medium bowl; stir 2 minutes or until completely dissolved.Microwave evaporated milk and chocolate in a microwaveable bowl on HIGH 2 minutes or until chocolate is melted and mixture is blended, stirring each minute.Add to gelatin; whisk until blended. Pour into 14 (3 oz.) paper cups sprayed with cooking spray. Refrigerate 15 minutes.Top with cherries, pressing in slightly to stick. Refrigerate 20 minutes or until firm. Unmold to serve. Variation: Substitute mini muffin pan or ice cube tray for paper cups. Substitute: Prepare using 1 pkg. (0.3 oz.) JELL-O Cherry Flavor Sugar Free Gelatin.Chocolate Cherry Deliciousness from the JELLO Recipe Book, Volume One
Read Also: Coronavirus: Messi shows incredible skills in toilet roll challenge (Video) But Warren confirmed the 31-year-old is “not bothered about it at all” as he continues his mission to unify the division. He said: “Tyson’s not bothered about it at all. “He just thinks it’s a load of rubbish and it’s a lie. That’s it, that’s where he’s at.” FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmail分享 But Warren is concerned the outbreak of coronavirus could have a long-lasting impact on the world of boxing. He said: “I think everything’s gonna go quiet for a couple of weeks and then we’ll see how the land lies. “The coronavirus pandemic will derail everything. “If this is the case, it certainly will do that to the rematch [Fury vs Wilder], there’s no doubt about that. It will derail every fight.” Fury is facing an investigation amid claims a Lancashire farmer was offered £25,000 to lie about his failed drugs test in 2015. Promoted Content10 Risky Jobs Some Women DoWhat Are The Most Delicious Foods Out There?9 Most Beautiful Women Of The XX Century8 Things That Will Happen If An Asteroid Hits EarthThe Very Last Bitcoin Will Be Mined Around 2140. Read MoreWhich Country Is The Most Romantic In The World?7 Universities In The World With The Highest Market Value7 Most Asntonishing Train Stations In The WorldIs This The Most Delicious Food In The World?You’ve Only Seen Such Colorful Hairdos In A Handful Of Anime8 Superfoods For Growing Hair Back And Stimulating Its Growth8 Ways Drones Will Automate Our Future Loading… Fury put on the performance of a lifetime as he destroyed Wilder, 34, at the second time of asking to claim the WBC belt last month. The Bronze Bomber has now claimed he is “counting down the days” until their third fight after he activated the rematch clause in his contract. But Warren has insisted the all-British showdown between Fury and Joshua is the fight that “everybody wants to see” this year. Speaking to talkSPORT, the promoter said: “Tyson vs Anthony Joshua in December remains what we’d ideally like to happen. “I hope by then things will have settled down. “That’s the fight that everybody wants to see and the fight we all have to make.” Joshua, 30, will have to get past Bulgarian hardman Kubrat Pulev on June 20 before he gets a shot at Fury. A whopping 72 per cent of fans have backed the Gypsy King to dethrone WBA, IBF, WBO and IBO title holder. Tyson Fury is still planning to take on Anthony Joshua in December, according to promoter Frank Warren. The Gypsy King wants to unify the heavyweight division after his trilogy fight against old rival Deontay Wilder.
RelatedPosts COVID-19: NCAA to revoke erring airlines licence over non-compliance FRSC to Schools: We’ll arrest, prosecute drivers who flout COVID-19 rules Sanwo-Olu: We’re committed to fulfilling promises to Lagosians Serena Williams confirmed on Wednesday she will compete in this year’s US Open in New York amid the COVID-19 outbreak, where the seven-times champion will seek a record-tying 24th career Grand Slam singles title.“Ultimately, I really cannot wait to return to New York and play the U.S. Open 2020,” Williams said in a video message played during a United States Tennis Association news conference to confirm that the August 31 to September 13 tournament will proceed without fans. “I feel like the USTA is going to do a really good job of ensuring everything is amazing and … everyone is safe.”In preparation for the event, US Open tournament director Stacey Allaster said Williams has had a court constructed at her house with the new US Open hardcourt surface.However, even with the health protocols put in place, Halep does not intend to compete.“Given the conditions outlined in the US Open announcement this morning, as of today I do not currently plan to play in NYC,” she told Reuters.Several players have criticised the decision to play the US Open, with Nick Kyrgios calling it “selfish”, but six-time champion Williams says she “really cannot wait to return to New York and play the 2020 US Open”. “I feel the USTA [United States Tennis Association] is going to do a really good job of ensuring everything is amazing and everything is perfect and everyone is safe…I will certainly miss the fans, don’t get me wrong.”Tags: COVID-19New YorkSerena WilliamsUS Open
BANGLADESH star Shakib Al-Hasan has requested a six-month break from Test cricket. Shakib played a starring role in his country’s recent 1-1 draw with Australia, taking 10 wickets and scoring 89 runs as the Tigers secured a historic win over Steve Smith’s side in Dhaka.The victory was Bangladesh’s first in the longest format against Australia.Shakib is the top-ranked all-rounder in all formats of cricket and has become a star in the Tigers’ continued emergence as a credible force, though his success has also drawn attention from lucrative Twenty20 leagues across the world.And with Bangladesh facing Test tours to South Africa and the West Indies, as well as a two-match series with Sri Lanka at home all before the Indian Premier League starts in April, Shakib may be wary of burnout.“Shakib has submitted a letter to the BCB asking for a six-month break from Test cricket,” Bangladesh Cricket Board spokesman Jalal Yunus is quoted by ESPN Cricinfo.Shakib has scored 3 594 runs at 40.38 in Tests, while taking 188 wickets at an average of 32.27. (Omnisport.com)
Update on the latest sports NEW YORK (AP) — Simona Halep says she will skip the U.S. Open. The Wimbledon champion says she wants to put her health first amid the coronavirus pandemic. Halep writes on Twitter that she “always said I would put my health at the heart of my decision and I therefore prefer to stay and train in Europe.” Halep is a former top-ranked player who is currently No. 2. She won the title in Prague on Sunday. Six of the top eight women in the WTA rankings won’t play in New York. No. 1 Ash Barty and defending champion Bianca Andreescu have also withdrawn from the tournament. August 17, 2020 Associated Press Nikola Jokic finished with 29 points and 10 rebounds for Denver. Murray took over in the extra period, sealing the game on a 3-pointer with 46.8 seconds remaining. Mitchell was the star of the show in the absence of Mike Conley, who left the NBA bubble to return to Ohio for the birth of his son. Mitchell was 19 of 33 from the floor and 13 of 13 from the free-throw line. He also had seven assists.It was no surprise this game went down to the wire. Denver went 3-0 against Utah this season but won by a combined margin of 11 points, including a 134-132 double-overtime thriller on Aug 8. Game 2 is Wednesday.NHL PLAYOFFSLightning win 2-1, put Blue Jackets on brink of eliminationTORONTO (AP) — Andrei Vasilevskiy had 28 saves and the Tampa Bay Lightning beat the Columbus Blue Jackets 2-1 on Monday to take a 3-1 lead in their Eastern Conference playoff series. In other college football news:Auburn football coach Gus Malzahn says his players have had 33 positive tests for COVID-19 this summer. Malzahn says one staff member also tested positive earlier this summer. The Tigers and other Southeastern Conference teams opened preseason camp Monday ahead of a season scheduled to start on Sept. 26. Malzahn says Auburn had no positive tests last week, but four players are still going through the testing protocols. He expects results back by the end of the week. He says the school has administered 863 tests among players, an average of more than seven times each. Mississippi starting center Eli Johnson says he won’t play football this season. Johnson announced on Twitter that he’ll sit out the season and focus on completing his master’s degree in criminal justice in December. The Southeastern Conference allows players to opt out of the season because of COVID-19 and remain on scholarship. Johnson started all 12 games last season, allowing only one sack. His father, David, was hospitalized this summer because of the virus.VIRUS OUTBREAK-SPORTSNo fans at Mercedes-Benz Stadium through Sept. Share This StoryFacebookTwitteremailPrintLinkedinRedditNBA-PLAYOFFSDenver takes Utah in overtime 135-125LAKE BUENA VISTA, Fla. (AP) — Jamal Murray scored 10 of his 36 points in overtime on a day Donovan Mitchell erupted for a Jazz playoff-record 57 points and the Denver Nuggets beat Utah 135-125 on Monday in Game 1 of their first-round series. Barclay Goodrow and Yanni Gourde each had a goal and an assist as the Lightning pushed the Blue Jackets to the verge of elimination after being swept by Columbus in the first round of the 2019 playoffs. Cam Atkinson scored for Columbus, and Joonas Korpisalo had 20 saves.The Blue Jackets seemed to have recharged after running out of gas in the Game 3 loss. They got the first goal early in the first period, but it was waved off because Alexandre Texier was offside entering the zone.Then the Lightning scored twice in the first five minutes of the second period. Game 5 is Wednesday.NHL NEWS Penguins star Malkin undergoes elbow surgeryPITTSBURGH (AP) — Pittsburgh Penguins center Evgeni Malkin has undergone surgery to repair a left elbow injury. The team did not provide specifics on the nature of Malkin’s injury or when it occurred. The 34-year-old Malkin led the Penguins with 74 points during the regular season but was ineffective during a four-game loss to Montreal in the qualifying round of the playoffs. Malkin recorded just one assist during the series and had a minus-3 rating. The expected recovery time for Malkin is about a month, meaning he should be available whenever training camp for the 2020-21 season opens.NFL NEWSCowboys newcomer Gerald McCoy out for season with leg injuryFRISCO, Texas (AP) — Dallas Cowboys defensive tackle Gerald McCoy is out for the season after tearing the quadriceps tendon in his right leg in the first padded practice of training camp. The Cowboys added plenty of depth on the defensive line in the offseason. But the loss of a potential starting tackle is a setback. McCoy will have surgery soon. He signed a three-year contract in March. There will be no fans at Atlanta’s Mercedes-Benz Stadium for NFL and MLS games played in September. The Atlanta Falcons and Atlanta United say the coronavirus pandemic forced the decision. The teams say they will continue to collaborate with local and national health officials before deciding on the possibility for fans in games after September. In other virus-related sports news:The Canadian Football League has canceled its 2020 season because of the pandemic. The decision marks the first year since 1919 the Grey Cup won’t be awarded. The nine-team league announced the move Monday, dashing hopes of a shortened season in the hub city of Winnipeg, Manitoba. Commissioner Randy Ambrosie says the cancellation was in the “best long-term interests” of the league and the CFL is “absolutely committed” to 2021. TENNIS – US OPENWimbledon champion Halep opts out of playing at U.S. Open In other NFL news:The New York Giants have released placekicker Chandler Catanzaro. Coach Joe Judge announced the move Monday, just 16 days after the team hired the veteran following the release of incumbent Aldrick Rosas. New York is in talks with former Carolina Panthers veteran Graham Gano. He hit a career-long 63-yard field goal with :01 to play to help the Panthers beat the Giants 33-31 in 2018. Bengals cornerback Trae Waynes had surgery for a torn pectoral muscle, a significant setback to a defense in transition. The Bengals signed Waynes to a three-year deal as a free agent from Minnesota. He was expected to start along with William Jackson III, but now has a long recovery ahead. The Detroit Lions have signed running back Jonathan Williams, adding depth in the backfield behind Kerryon Johnson and rookie D’Andre Swift. Detroit released running back Wes Hills on Monday to clear a spot on the roster. Williams has 329 yards rushing on 79 carries with two touchdowns over parts of three seasons with the Indianapolis Colts, New Orleans Saints and Buffalo Bills. The Washington Football Team has hired Jason Wright as team president. He’s the first Black person to hold that position in NFL history and at 38 becomes the league’s youngest team president. Wright spent seven years as an NFL running back, was an Arizona Cardinals captain and their Players Association representative. After retiring as a player, Wright earned an M.B.A. from the University of Chicago and joins the organization after working at a strategy and management consulting firm in Washington, D.C. He will run the business side of the organization and join coach Ron Rivera in reporting directly to owner Dan Snyder. Cleveland Browns star running back Nick Chubb is being evaluated for a concussion after being tackled on the first day players were in pads. Chubb, who rushed for 1,494 yards last season, was taken down after catching a short pass by linebacker Mack Wilson during Monday’s workout. A team spokesman said Chubb is being examined for a possible head injury. COLLEGE FOOTBALLK-State OK’d for 25% capacity for football gamesKansas State will allow 25% capacity at its football stadium for games this season after getting approval Monday from the county commission. That means a maximum crowd of just under 15,000 fans. The Big 12 Conference is allowing schools to set their own attendance policies based on local jurisdictions. The Riley County Commission reviewed the rest of Kansas State’s return-to-play protocols, too. Fans will be required to wear face coverings where 6 feet of social distancing cannot be maintained. Tailgating will not be permitted in parking lots controlled by the school. There will be no reentry. There also will be hand sanitizing stations and other protective measures.